Why I don't use grapefruit seed extract (GSE)
It might seem like a lovely all natural ingredient, and with it's powerful antimicrobial properties I thought GSE could be a great way to preserve my fresh creams. But, at a closer look, I discovered that unfortunately grapefruits in their natural form have been shown to have no antimicrobial activity… so how can this be?
Grapefruits go through a whopping 7-step process to become grapefruit seed extract. During this process, some chemicals are added and various chemical reactions occur, resulting in the GSE being mostly made up of the synthetic preservatives benzethonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride (used in cleaning products, and known to cause severe skin and respiratory irritation).
Other synthetic preservatives that can be found are:
- Triclosan (hormone disrupter, can lead to skin, eye and lung irritation as well as organ system toxicity)
- Methylparaben (hormone disrupter, creates cellular level changes, can lead to neurotoxicity)
- 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (can lead to organ system toxicity)
- Benzoic acid (can lead to organ system toxicity)
- Cetrimonium bromide (can lead to organ system toxicity).
Regulations need to step up as GSE is still being widely sold and used in "all natural" products, despite the evidence against it. All cosmetic products in the UK containing water are required to undergo rigorous preservative efficacy testing before being sold on the market. It's easy to fall into the trap and use an ingredient that is not actually natural but is almost guaranteed to pass the tests, while still labelling your products as "all natural", but you can see how this is clearly exploiting the consumer.
We opt for a genuinely natural, minimally processed preservation system in our Nutrient Rich Face Cream, which offers probiotic benefits aiding your skin's microflora, hydration levels and soothing properties.
1. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: I. An in vitro agar assay.
2. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.
3. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.
4. The Truth about Grapefruit Seed Extract.
5. Development and validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of 18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract.
6. Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy.
7. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.